Drive east from Washington and eventually you run smack into the middle of the Chesapeake Bay, the massive estuary that stretches from the mouth of the Susquehanna River at Maryland's northern tip and empties into the Atlantic 200 miles away near Norfolk, Va.
The Chesapeake is home to oysters, clams, and famous Maryland blue crab.
It's the largest estuary in the United States.
And for a long time, it was one of the most polluted.
Decades of runoff from grassy suburban yards and farm fields as far north as New York state, plus sewage and other waste dumped by the hundreds of gallons, made the Chesapeake so dirty that by 1983, the crab population had plummeted to just 2 percent of what Capt. John Smith saw when he explored the bay in the 1600s.
For years, people tried to clean it up. States and the federal government spent millions of dollars. The first effort began in 1983 — officially launched by President Ronald Reagan in his 1984 State of the Union Address.
And each time, the cleanup efforts failed. The bay's health wasn't getting much better.
By 2009, when the Chesapeake Bay Foundation sued the Environmental Protection Agency in an attempt to get the EPA to do more to clean up the bay, the Chesapeake's dead zone was so big it often covered a cubic mile in the summer.
Dead zones form when the water becomes too concentrated with nitrogen and phosphorus — allowing algal blooms to grow and block out sunlight from reaching beneath the water and causing populations of fish and crabs to plummet.
Then, last summer, scientists recorded no dead zone in the Chesapeake Bay. And wildlife was returning, too. The EPA's new plan seemed to be working.
"When I first heard that spawning sturgeon were back in the bay, my reaction was, 'Yes! We can get this done,'" says Will Baker, the nonprofit Chesapeake Bay Foundation's president. "It's really exciting. You give nature half a chance and she will produce every single time."
Scientists and advocates for the bay say that success is fragile. And it may be even more so now. The Trump administration's budget proposal calls for eliminating the program's $73 million in funding.
"I think if we saw the federal government withdraw, you would see the Chesapeake Bay revert to a national disgrace right as it's becoming a great national source of pride," Baker says. "Things are going in the right direction, but nature can turn on a dime and I don't think it's a scare tactic to say within the next eight years, we could see the last 35 years of effort go down the tubes and start to change direction."
And that could have implications not only for the future of the bay cleanup, but for any other states hoping to clean up some of the country's other most polluted waters — from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico.
Out on the Chesapeake Bay
Locals like 22-year-old Matt Gaskins say the difference in the bay's health is noticeable.
He's on a boat with two of his friends. A handful of blue crabs click in a bucket resting in the middle of his small boat. Gaskins says he can tell how the bay's doing by how many crabs he's catching. He was out on the South River the day before.
"Everyone pretty much around the whole river has been doing really well," he says. "The rockfish are doing really well this year, and also the crabs are doing really well."
Scientists from the Chesapeake Bay Foundation say that's proof the cleanup efforts are making a difference.
"The trend is for a smaller volume of the dead zone over time, which is really encouraging. For the last two years, they never measured water that had zero oxygen, which is the first time that it had ever happened in the history of collecting data," says Beth McGee, a scientist with the foundation.
But why is the cleanup finally working now, after all those years of trying?
In 2009, the Chesapeake Bay Foundation sued the EPA, trying to compel the agency to enact a tougher cleanup plan. In the past, a group of six states that make up the Chesapeake Bay watershed — Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Delaware and New York, plus the District of Columbia, had put in place various pollution control plans to limit the fertilizer and sewage they released into the bay.
But without sufficient funding or any real consequences for states that didn't meet benchmarks, things didn't really improve.
The Obama administration needed to change that. To do it, the administration came up with a novel interpretation of the Clean Water Act of 1972, which gives the federal government the power to require that states write a "pollution diet" for any body of water the feds declare polluted. States have to calculate how much of each pollutant a body of water can take on, and then figure out how to hit those numbers.
But actually making the reductions had always been voluntary. Only one in five of these pollution diets had actually been implemented, and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation wanted to ensure states followed through. The Obama administration would use its powers under the Clean Water Act to compel states to take action — by withholding funding from states that didn't follow through on implementing their cleanup plans.
Baker says that's part of the challenge — cleaning up the Chesapeake requires cooperation not just from the places that have the bay in their backyards — but also from states in the whole watershed whose rivers and streams feed into the bay.
"The critical role of the EPA has been to be the glue that holds the six states and the District of Columbia together — working in concert to save the Chesapeake Bay system," Baker says.
How do you convince states without that tangible tie to make sacrifices for a bay they don't even border?
"The Chesapeake Bay is a system of six states, 64,000 square miles," Baker says. "And when you work in Pennsylvania for clean water in the Chesapeake Bay, you're really working for clean water in Pennsylvania."
The EPA's plan was controversial from the start. The American Farm Bureau Federation sued over it. As attorney general of Oklahoma, Scott Pruitt signed an amicus brief supporting the Farm Bureau's position. He's now running the EPA — the agency that is tasked with administering it.
The Supreme Court declined to take up the case — letting a lower court's ruling stand that upheld the program.
Farm to bay
Chip Bowling's farm sits on banks of the Wicomico River in southern Maryland. The Wicomico flows into the Potomac River, which flows into the Chesapeake Bay.
He farms 1,600 acres of corn, soybeans and wheat on land that's been in his family for seven generations.
"When we got our work done, we literally would jump out of our work clothes and put a pair of shorts on and T-shirt, and run down here, and either swim, fish, get on the boat," he says.
He's been doing that more than 50 years.
"If you walked at the end of this pier when I was a kid, you'd see aquatic grass growing," Bowling says. "You actually had a hard time walking through it because the grass was so lush underwater."
That lush grass provided a habitat for crabs and fish. Now, it's beginning to return.
Agriculture was a big focus of the cleanup plan. As chairman of the National Corn Growers Association, Bowling and his organization joined the lawsuit. In Maryland, for example, the state imposed regulations as part of the cleanup that required farmers to write pollution diets for their farms.
The federal government provided money to help, like funds for planting buffer strips between cropland and waterways that feed into the bay. States wrote their own plans to meet federal benchmarks and the federal government could withhold funding from states that didn't comply.
That upset farmers, who felt the EPA was going too far.
But Bowling has come around.
"Nobody likes rules," he says. "Nobody really likes regulations. But you also know that you have to have both."
What changed? The plan appeared to be working.
Bowling, who once joined a lawsuit to rule the program unconstitutional, is fighting for the program's survival.
"It was a struggle to get there," he says. "I was critical in the beginning. What we do know now is that working together, we have figured out a way — with funding — to get those programs in place and to get the bay on track."
But the big part of that, at least for Bowling, is funding. And the Trump administration has proposed cutting it entirely from the federal budget — from $73 million to zero.
For Billy Crook, a commercial crabber who makes runs on the Chesapeake, a healthy bay can have a big impact on his family.
"I got a bunch of little kids. I had a good year last year, so they got a trip to Disney World," he says.
But that doesn't mean he gives the EPA credit.
"The EPA — they do some good, but mostly, they do a lot of talk," he says, leaning over the side of his boat. "They always talk about putting money in the bay. We never see the physical evidence of them doing much."
Bowling may support the Chesapeake Bay's cleanup program, but that doesn't mean he's clamoring for a similar program elsewhere — such as in the Mississippi River watershed. Runoff into the rivers and streams there feed the Gulf of Mexico's dead zone — predicted this year to cover an area the size of New Jersey.
"I can guarantee you, they're not going to ask for one like the Chesapeake Bay," Bowling says. "Hopefully we won't have a mandate nationwide. In my opinion, knowing what we're doing, I think that voluntary is a great way to start. The mandate made us do it, but I can guarantee you we would still change the way we farm."
Lauren Lurkins, director of natural and environmental resources for the Illinois Farm Bureau, says farmers in her state have increasingly prioritized water cleanup over the last few years, but that a Chesapeake-like program would be a step too far for states bordering the Mississippi River.
"It's a huge land mass that is covered and it gets really complicated and it makes for a bigger effort that is pushed down from the federal government," Lurkins says. "(Illinois farmers) don't have the ability to help shape or start to engage in a plan that covers 31 states or even half of that. It's just something that's brought down on top of them."
Even EPA officials under the Obama administration — and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation — have refrained from touting the bay cleanup as a program ready for adoption elsewhere.
"We're not talking about cleaning up the waters of the world. We're talking about one iconic national treasure. If others can use the protocols that have been put in place here so successfully, go for it," Baker says.
Sen. Ben Cardin, a Maryland Democrat who's been advocating for the Chesapeake cleanup for decades, is more confident the plan can be employed in other places. Even so, he acknowledges adopting the plan elsewhere won't likely happen in the near future.
"I think this model will expand and be used in other parts of the country," he told NPR. "There's no question that if we had a different administration that put a higher priority on the environment, that it would be more aggressive in using this type of model in other places in the country."
During his confirmation hearing, Pruitt told Cardin he promised to preserve the program. The EPA did not respond to a request from NPR for an interview.
But Cardin says he's optimistic about the Chesapeake cleanup's future. White House budgets are just proposals — and almost every federal program has an advocate somewhere in Congress.
"I've talked to my Democratic and Republican colleagues and they're very supportive of the federal role in the Chesapeake Bay program," he says. "It's in everyone's interest to preserve this unique body of water. It's not of one state or one region, but a national treasure."
Bowling is also confident the funding won't disappear.
"We think that when the new administration figures out what they're going to cut and how they're going to cut it, that there's still going to be funding left for programs like environmental cleanup," Bowing says. "I can guarantee you we're doing something in D.C. today to make sure that we pass on to the administration and Administrator Pruitt what we're doing works and we need funding to get there. I don't think they're going to allow something that's come so far to go away."
But funding for new programs? That will be a tough sell.
A couple of years ago, environmentalists outside the watershed may have looked eagerly to the Chesapeake Bay as a model cleanup they could adopt in their own backyards.
But now there's an even more basic worry — whether the model plan itself will continue.
Selena Simmons-Duffin produced and Jolie Myers edited this radio story.
ARI SHAPIRO, HOST:
Summer on the Chesapeake Bay is in full swing.
(SOUNDBITE OF BOAT ENGINE IGNITION)
SHAPIRO: We're in Maryland. We came here to find out what decades of work and hundreds of millions of dollars have done to clean up this body of water and to look at what might happen to it under a new administration. This boat belongs to the Chesapeake Bay Foundation.
BETH MCGEE: What a beautiful day.
SHAPIRO: Researcher Beth McGee is on board with us and glad that she's not behind a desk.
MCGEE: Yeah, I used to be a real scientist and get out in the bay a lot more. But I get out personally, so that makes up for it.
SHAPIRO: She moved to this area in the 1980s when factories were still dumping waste into the bay and farmers were filling the water with fertilizer. Oysters were scarce. Crabs were hard to find. But today, things have improved in ways you can see and ways you cannot.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: How's it going?
SHAPIRO: We pull our boat up alongside three young guys drawing blue crabs out of the water on a long line. Matt Gaskins is 22 years old and grew up around here. He gives us a peek inside his bucket.
They're clearly feisty. They're snapping at the mike, and you can tell why they're called blue crabs. They're bright, bright blue. So you live around here. Do you go crabbing every summer?
MATT GASKINS: Yes, yeah.
SHAPIRO: How is this summer looking?
GASKINS: It's really good this year. Everyone pretty much around the whole river has been doing really well.
SHAPIRO: Can you pretty much tell whether the bay is doing well or not by whether you're catching crabs or not?
GASKINS: Yeah, definitely. I think last year, there was a ton of grasses. Like, the rockfish are doing really well this year, and also the crabs are doing really well, so...
SHAPIRO: And you know that more grasses means more crabs.
GASKINS: Yeah, typically, yeah.
SHAPIRO: Those are the visible ways the bay's health is improving.
Hey, good luck, guys.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: Thank you.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #3: Thanks, guys.
SHAPIRO: Next, we set out to measure some of the less visible ways deep under the surface. We motor out to where the water is around 35 feet. We're looking for a dead zone. When there's no oxygen dissolved in the water, fish and crabs can't survive. Dr. Beth McGee explains that can be caused by fertilizer runoff and other pollution.
MCGEE: Data's been collected from say the mid-'80s till now. The trend is for a smaller volume of the dead zone over time, which is really encouraging.
SHAPIRO: So last year was the first year since records started being kept that there was no dead zone at all.
MCGEE: Yes. Actually for the last two years, they never measured water that had zero oxygen, which is the first time that it had ever happened in the history of collecting data.
SHAPIRO: For a long time, there was not much improvement. The Chesapeake Bay Foundation says things only started to get a lot better in the last decade when the Environmental Protection Agency started coordinating state efforts to stick to a pollution diet, a sort of budget for how much each state can pollute. There was money for people to plant buffer zones near the water's edge, like trees and bushes to block runoff, and polluters faced consequences. In other words, the federal government provided help for those who wanted to embrace environmental practices and penalties for those who didn't.
BART JAEGER: So what we're going to do now is we're going to drop a probe down and actually measure the dissolved oxygen content.
SHAPIRO: That's Bart Jaeger, who also works for the foundation. He's the captain of our boat today.
So this probe is basically a wand that's, like, less than a foot long. It's metal, and it's got a wire attached. And you're just going to drop it in the water.
MCGEE: Colleague of ours is a big fisherman, and he's got a depth finder like we have here. And when the dead zone is bad, he can actually see the fish kind of stacked up above the dead zone. And he'll see where the fish are. They may be, you know, at 20 feet, but maybe he's in 35 feet of water because the fish are moving up to avoid that dead zone.
SHAPIRO: And what's the reading?
MCGEE: So 5.6.
SHAPIRO: Oh, that's pretty good.
MCGEE: So that is good.
SHAPIRO: Plenty of dissolved oxygen which fish need to survive. As we motor away from the deepest part of the bay, Jaeger spots a break in the surface of the water, then another.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #4: What is it?
SHAPIRO: It's a pair of rays.
JAEGER: Their mating ritual is usually up near the surface, and so they're usually splashing around. And so yeah, if you look at them, they're actually kind of in tandem.
SHAPIRO: Yeah, their wings are just poking out of the water. That is beautiful.
Nobody disputes the health of the bay these days, but people do disagree about what's responsible for these changes. We pull our boat up alongside Billy Crook, a 59-year-old commercial crabber who's been working these waters since he was a teenager.
BILLY CROOK: I grew up in Baltimore right near a sewage plant and a company that cleaned down tanker trucks. And everything went into the bay back then, everything.
SHAPIRO: Today his crab harvests are better than they've ever been, and that makes a real difference.
CROOK: I've got a bunch of little kids. I had a good year last year, so they got a trip to Disney World.
SHAPIRO: So who gets the credit for cleaning up the bay? Well, if you ask Billy Crook, it's not the feds.
CROOK: The EPA - I mean they do some good, but mostly they do a lot of talk. They always talk about putting money in the bay. We never see the physical evidence of them doing much, you know?
SHAPIRO: He believes the cleanup has been mostly voluntary. People stopped polluting because pollution stopped being socially acceptable. And this is the crux of the debate happening in Washington right now. Is federal money still needed to keep the bay clean? The Trump administration proposes a budget that would cut funding for Chesapeake Bay cleanup from $73 million to zero.
Back on land, we sit down at the water's edge with Will Baker, the head of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation. He's worked here since 1976, and just recently, there have been some really exciting developments. Prehistoric fish that used to be thick in these waters and went nearly extinct are now making a comeback.
WILL BAKER: When I first heard that spawning sturgeon were back in the bay, my reaction was, yes, we can get this done. It's really exciting. You give nature half a chance, and she will produce every single time.
SHAPIRO: The U.S. is full of big, polluted bodies of water - the Great Lakes, the Mississippi River. So I asked Baker why the Chesapeake Bay should get all this attention and taxpayer money.
BAKER: This is where "The Star-Spangled Banner" was written. This is where the Revolutionary War was fought. Truly it is where America started. This is a body of water that produces more seafood per acre than really any other body of water in the country.
SHAPIRO: I've heard people argue that states that want to do this can do this at the state level. Why do you think the federal government and the EPA need to play a role? And what should that role be?
BAKER: So the critical role of the EPA has been to be the glue that holds the six states and the District of Columbia together, working in concert to save the Chesapeake Bay system.
SHAPIRO: He says it required money and regulations along with social pressure - carrots, sticks and people caring. Without any one of those legs, he thinks the stool would fall over. Under the Trump administration, that may be put to the test.
(SOUNDBITE OF KAKI KING SONG, "KEWPIE STATION")
SHAPIRO: Tomorrow we'll meet a farmer whose family has lived by the bay since the 1700s. Years ago, he joined a lawsuit challenging the cleanup plan. Now he's fighting to keep the plan alive.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #5: It was a struggle to get there. I was critical in the beginning. What we do know now is that working together, we have figured out a way with funding to get those programs in place and to get the bay on track that's getting it environmentally better.
(SOUNDBITE OF KAKI KING SONG, "KEWPIE STATION") Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.