Since the discovery of Neandertal remains in Europe in 1829, scientists have been fascinated by the relationship of Neandertals to modern humans. One question involves whether they communicated through spoken language. Because language doesn’t fossilize, we rely on indirect data. DNA analysis reveals that Neandertals had the human form of the FOXP2 gene, associated with our ability to comprehend grammar and control the mouth movements used in speech. Another clue comes in the form of the hyoid bone, a small horseshoe-shaped bone that supports the muscles involved in sound production.